DYLAN: Annotated bibliography on the history of multilingualism in Europe

63 title(s)
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  • Auer, Peter (2005): Europe's sociolinguistic unity, or: A typology of European dialect/standard constellations. In: Nicole Delbecque; van der Auwera, Johan & Dirk Geeraerts (eds.), Perspectives on variation: Sociolinguistic, historical, comparative. [meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea in Leuven 2001]. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 7–42 (Trends in linguisticsStudies and monographs, 163).

    In this paper, the author argues for a contrastive approach to European sociolinguistic repertoires. He gives a very detailed outline of how a typology of European dialect/standard constellations might look like and proposes five different types: (0) no endoglossic standard (exoglossic diglossia), (A) medial diglossia with an endoglossic standard, (B) spoken diglossia, (C) diaglossia & (D) dialect loss. He traces the development from one type of constellation to other types through history and pays special attention to the occurence of these types in present-day Europe. Auer's typology includes the most diverse language areas of Europe: the Iberian peninsula, Greece, Scandinavia, the Baltic region, the British Isles, the German-speaking area etc. One of the few publications providing a comprehensive overview of language histories across Europe from a sociolinguistic point of view.

  • Baggioni, Daniel (1997): Langues et nations en Europe. Paris: Payot (Bibliotheque scientifique Payot).

    The author seeks to demonstrate the interrelationship between nation building and the formation of national languages across Europe. He identifies factors which can help to account for differences and commonalities in the emergence of nations and of national languages in the different language areas. Examples for factors the author pays attention to include the humanist movement, reformation and counter-reformation, urbanization and democratization. Throughout the book, he also proposes possible typologies, establishing groups of language areas with comparable developments as regards nation-building and the emergence and further development of standard and national languages. At the same time, the author provides an overview of the history of Europe's standard languages, covering a wide variety of European languages, including e.g. Scandinavia, Albania, Estonia, the British Isles and Russia. In the last two chapters he also pays attention to the role of lingua francas and asks questions about the linguistic future of Europe.

    1. Languages and nations in present-day Europe: a first approach 2. Some theoretical concepts (to ensure a good interdisciplinary understanding) 3. The first ecolinguistic revolution in Western Europe (15th - 16th centuries): From universal Latin to common languages ('langues communes') 4. The first ecolinguistic revolution in Western Europe (15th - 16th centuries): Factors relevant to the emergence of common languages ('langues communes') 5. The Europe of common languages (1550 - 1800): The 'big languages' of Western Europe 6. The Europe of common languages (1550 - 1800): The Europe of 'small languages' and of the periphery 7. The Europe of common languages (1550 - 1800): Developments 8. The second ecolinguistic revolution in Europe (1800-1918): the times of the national languages 9. Revolutionary nations and romantic nations in the 19th century: The Europe of the grand nations 10. Revolutionary nations and romantic nations in the 19th century: Historic nations and nations looking for a state 11. The completion of the process of nation-building: a Europe of nation states 12. Towards a third ecolinguistic revolution in Europe 13. Conclusion: National languages, international languages and future communication in Europe

  • Block, David (2006): Multilingual identities in a global city. London stories. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (Language and globalization). [URL: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0809/2005049194-d.html].

    This is a book on language and identity in a global city. It provides an in-depth study of the multilayered identities of (different groups of) individuals living (sometimes temporarily) in London by retelling parts of their life stories. The reader gains insight into their perception of the life of a migrant in London and into their language practices and linguistic attitudes. One section of the book is dedicated to theoretical aspects of reasearch on language and migration: it contains a detailed discussion of key-concepts such as globalization, migration, multiculturalism, identity, ethnicity, race and nationality. Moreover it gives a brief account of the history of migration and multilingualism in Great Britain and London.

    1. Globalization and Migration 2. Multiculturalism and Identities 3. The Global City and the History of Migration and Multilingualism in Britain and London 4. Researching London Stories 5. Japanese Graduate Students in London 6. French Foreign-Language Teachers in London 7. Spanish-Speaking Latinos in London 8. British Asian Undergraduate Students in London 9. Taking Stock: Where to London?

  • Braunmüller, Kurt (2007): Receptive multilingualism in Northern Europe in the Middle Ages. A description of a scenario. In: Jan Derk ten Thije & Ludger Zeevaert (eds.), Receptive multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 25–48 (Hamburg studies on multilingualism, 6).

    The author provides an overview of the linguistic situation in northern Europe (including the Lowlands of northern Germany and the Netherlands, The Baltic region and Scandinavia) in the late Middle Ages. The overview draws on the results of three research projects which were carried out at Hamburg University since 1990. In this contribution, the author focuses on the role of receptive multilingualism (that is: a form of multilingual communication where interlocutors use their respective mother tongues while speaking to each other) in the region at the time. He highlights the following aspects:
    - (individual and societal) multilingualism was the default linguistic situation
    - receptive multilingualism was only one (though important) aspect of multilingualism
    - the linguistic situation was characterized bij domain-related language use; there were e.g. lingua francas and/or LSPs (languages for specific purposes) which were tied to specific domains (in northern Europe these were mostly Low German and Latin)
    - the proficiency in the different varieties depended on the actual communicative needs (and there was no need to master all domains in all language varieties)
    - receptive multilingualism was particularly common in face-to-face communications (e.g. business contacts)
    - attempts at language standardization at the time (e.g. a certain form of uniformization of written Low German authorized by the Hansa of Lübeck) should, according to the author, be interpreted as a form of 'linguistic branding' ( to make Hansa documents 'recognizable') rather than as a means to increase linguistic and cultural unity
    - with the rise of nationalism in the 18th century and the linking of one uniform language to a specific nation, receptive multilingualism became undesirable; from then on, only the near-perfect mastering of a standard language was regarded as socially acceptable (one exception is Scandinavia where receptive multilingualism is still an accepted form of intra-Nordic communication)
    - one last observation: the author suggests that the motivation to create standard languages never really was linked to the wish to enhance intelligibility (as is often claimed from a present-day point of view); rather, language standardization should first and foremost be seen as part of the process of nation-building

  • Braunmüller, Kurt & Gisella Ferraresi (2003): Introduction. In: Kurt Braunmüller & Gisella Ferraresi (eds.), Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1–13 (Hamburg studies on multilingualism / Hamburg studies on multilingualism, 2).

    This introduction to a volume with case studies on multiligual contexts in the hstory of Europe gives an overview of some main characteristics of (multilingual) language use before the rise of the 'one state - one language' ideology (or in spite of this ideology). The main assertation of the authors is that multilingualism used to be the 'default case' in European communication. This applies most notably to the middle and upper classes which used various languages in their daily lives. It was especially true for the nobility: there are various accounts of princes and emperors and their multilingual repertoires (e.g. Charles V or Frederick the Great of Prussia). Moreover, it also applies to various occupation groups which had to have proficiency in different languages in order to master the tasks of everyday life. The authors cite as one example the Hanseatic merchants in the Middle Ages.
    In addition, the authors stress that individual multilingualism in the Middle Ages and in Early Modern Times should not be conceived of as 'perfect' multilingualism. Rather, individuals had a passive command of a certain variety ('receptive bilingualism') or they had acquired a variety for a specific purpose ('functionally restricted bilingualism') or they were able to use a certain lingua franca.

  • Burke, Peter (2004): Languages and communities in early modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    This book, written by one of the leading cultural historians of Europe, gives an account of the social history of language in Europe between 1450 (the invention of printing) and 1789 (the French Revolution). In this account, the author pays special attention to changes to the view on language. One main topic is the competition between Latin and the vernacular languages as well as between (different forms of) vernacular languages. The author describes how, across Europe, certain varieties developed into standard languages while other languages fell behind in status. He stresses, however, that this was no linear development and that no language variety was 'bound' to become the most prestigious variety right from the start. The author is also very cautious about the term 'language policy' for the period in question as, according to him, there is not much evidence for deliberate planning for change in language use. He prefers social explanations which emphasize the role of the ordinary speaker who selects or deselects a variety based on its perceived social status. Another aspect the author pays attention to, is the central role of language mixing in European language history: the decline of Latin led to an increasing need for translation between the European vernaculars; moreover, migration (partly for religious reasons) was on the rise in early modern times. Both developments favoured language contact and linguistic hybridity.

    Prologue: communities and domains 1. 'Speak, that I may see thee': the discovery of language in early modern Europe 2. Latin: a language in search of a community 3. Vernaculars in competition 4. Standardizing languages 5. Mixing languages 6. Purifying languages Epilogue: languages and nations

  • Ciscel, Matthew H. (2007): The language of the Moldovans. Romania, Russia, and identity in an ex-Soviet republic. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books. [URL: http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0713/2007010113.html].
  • Clyne, Michael (ed.) (1997): Undoing and redoing corpus planning. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter (Contributions to the sociology of language, 78).

    This volume focusses on corpus planning in the context of far-reaching political and ideological changes: the rise of totalitarian regimes, the end of totalitarian regimes, the division and/or reunification of states etc. More specifically, it investigates the process of abandoning earlier corpus planning in order to impose a new identity on the population of a region ('undoing corpus planning') as well as new changes to the form of a language (sometimes restoring old ones) with the aim of fostering a new identity ('redoing corpus planning').
    The authors adhere to a comparative approach and try to address a number of common issues such as, e.g.: 'What political situation led to the 'undoing' or 'redoing' of corpus planning?' 'What was the status of the actors in the corpus planning process?' 'Are there sections of the population who do not accept the changes?' The languages/contexts covered in this volume are the following: Ukrainian, Moldavian (both after the end of the Soviet Union), Hungarian (after the fall of the Iron Curtain), Serbo-Croation (after 1990), German (after unification), Chinese (during the Cultural Revolution), Spanish in Nicaragua (during and after Sandinista revolution), Vietnamese (since reunification), Norwegian/Samnorsk (since independence), Turkish (since the Founding of the Republic of Turkey), Pilipino (since independence of the Philippines), Hebrew, Arabic (both during the Peace Process), Afrikaans (after apartheid), Yiddish (1930ies and 1990ies) and Dutch in Flanders (against the background of various political changes in the Low Countries in the course of history).

  • Considine, John P. (2008): Dictionaries in early modern Europe. Lexicography and the making of heritage. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    In chapter 8 of his book, the author specifically addresses the tradition of polyglot dictionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Examples include (1) polyglot dictionaries with the word Vocabulista in the title which are derived from an Italian-German dictionary of 1477, (2) editions based on the initially French-Dutch dictionary by Barlement, (3) various polyglot editions of Calepino, (4) the polyglot Nomenclatur by Hadrianus Junius (1567), (5) the Ductor in linguas by John Minsheu, (6) the Dictionarium quatuor linguarum by Hieronymus Megiser (1592) and (7) the Thesaurus polyglottus by the same author (1603). The named dictionaries include various European languages, commonly Latin, classical Greek, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Dutch and English but also for example Slovene (cf. (6)) or Welsh (cf. (5)). The author of the Thesaurus polyglottus even claims to have included words from 400 (!) language varieties and actually does provide some words in 60 languages or more, including non-European languages such as Malagasy.
    The function of polyglot dictionaries was, according to the author, first of all to display the wealth of languages spoken in Europe (and the world). Moreover he assumes that the polyglot dictionaries conveyed the message that the languages of Europe could all express the same range of concepts and that therefore, Europeans shared a heritage of concepts and consequently, in some way, all spoke the same language. More generally, the author regards the polyglot dictionaries as the expression of a belief in the 'translatability' and 'learnability' of other languages (European and beyond) which would ensure communication between different peoples.
    Additionally, the author stresses that the tradition of polyglot dictionaries was closely linked to the publication of so-called 'universal dictionaries'. These were products of the pursuit of a universal language which should replace Latin as a (European and worldwide) lingua franca and which was also intended to be more rational in its structure than Latin (and therefore better suited as a language for the sciences).

  • Delisle, Jean & Judith Woodsworth (eds.) (1995): Translators through history. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, Unesco Publishing.

    This volume is the result of the cooperation of some fifty scholars from twenty different countries aiming at portraying the achievements of translators through world history and illustrating their roles 'in the evolution of human thought'. Of special interest to research on standard languages and multilingualism in Europe are the chapters 1, 2 and 8 where translators are identified as actors in the selectionprocess of writing systems, early written forms of vernacular languages and of codified standard languages. Chapter 1, on the role of translators in the invention of alphabets, elaborates among others on the role of the translators Cyril and Methodius, Slavic speakers from the Byzantine Empire (from Greek Macedonia), in the selection of a Slavonic written language which gradually, from the 10th century onwards, assumed the role Latin had in Western Europe in what today constitutes the Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian an Russian language area. Chapter 2 stresses the role of Bible translators in e.g. the Swedish and the German language area for the development of a standard language. Chapter 8 addresses the production of multilingual dictionaries from the Renaissance onwards. Also very interesting is the chapter on the role of translation centers (e.g. Toledo and Baghdad) for the dissemination of knowledge between Europe and Asia. The book is available in an English and in a French version.

    1. Translators and the Invention of Alphabets 2. Translators and the Development of National Languages 3. Translators and the Emergence of National Literatures 4. Translators and the Dissemination of Knowledge 5. Translators and the Reins of Power 6. Translators and the Spread of Religions 7. Translators and the Transmission of Cultural Values 8. Translators and the Writing of Dictionaries 9. Interpreters and the Making of History

  • Durrell, Martin (2007): Language, Nation and Identity in the German-speaking Countries. In: Christian Fandrych & Reinier Salverda (eds.), Standard, Variation und Sprachwandel in germanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Narr, 37–57 (Studien zur deutschen Sprache, 41).

    This article explores the relationship between language, nation and identity in different areas of Europe where (a variety of) German is spoken. The author addresses the situation in the Eastern part of Belgium, in Luxembourg, in France (Alsace and Lorraine), in Italy (South Tyrol), in Switzerland, Austria and in Germany before and after unification. His main conclusion is that during the past decades there has been a development towards separate 'Sprachnationen' (nationality defined in terms of language; distinction by Friedrich Meinecke) which coincide with the different 'Staatsnationen' (where nationality is defined in terms of citizenship of a particular state). For example, the Sprachnation of the Südtiroler is becoming more and more characterized by German-Italian bilingualism. Typical for Switzerland is the diglossic situation with varieties of Schwyzerdütsch being used in oral communications and Standard German being the H-variety (which makes it a candidate for a distinct Sprachnation). Concerning Germany and Austria, the author states that in Germany, young people from all over the country are becoming indistinguishable in their linguistic usage (while Germany has historically been known for its strong regional differences irrespective of social backgrounds). In Austria, however, there is no such tendency: Austrians are clearly (and maybe deliberately) diverging from this new German variety. Moreover, even young Austrians from different regions can still be recognized on the basis of their linguistic usage. For the author, these are indications that the limits of the Staatsnationen where German is spoken are becoming boundaries of Sprachnationen as well.

  • Edwards, John R. (1995): Multilingualism. London, New York: Routledge.

    Edwards' book on multilingualism is a very readable introduction to the topic and covers a great range of questions linked to the notion of multilingualism. Among these are the origins of today's language situation, aspects of language spread and decline, the link between language and nation/nationalism, minority languages, multilingualism at school and early childhood bilingualism. Edwards advocates an interdisciplinary approach to multilingualism and stresses, as one aspect, the importance of a historical perspective (cf. introduction). Throughout his book he pays some attention to changes to the perception and use of language(s).

    1. An introductory overview 2. Languages in the world 3. Bilingualism 4. Languages in conflict 5. Languages and identities 6. The prescriptive urge 7. Languages, cultures and education 8. Conclusions

  • Elspaß, Stephan (2005): Language norm and language reality. Effectiveness and limits of prescriptivism in New High German. In: Nils Langer & Winifred V. Davies (eds.), Linguistic purism in the Germanic languages. Berlin: de Gruyter, 20–45.

    In this contribution, the author conludes that various grammatical features of German dialects which have been banned from the standard by actors of prescriptivism (grammarians, school teachers), were being used in texts (mostly letters) written by members of the lower and lower middle classes throughout the 19th century and are partly still in use in present-day dialects and colloquial German. His assertion is based on empirical research - an analysis of language use in a corpus of North American emigrant letters from the 19th century, written by emigrants from all German speaking countries and regions. Also, he uses data from present-day colloquial German. One of the general conclusions the author draws from this investigation is that what is traditionally regarded as nineteenth-century standard German was in fact only known and accessible to a very small elite and that variability was much more widespread than adherence to a prescribed norm. He also suggests that more investigation of 'real language use' is needed for present-day German in order to be able to assess the role of language norm in present-day language use.

  • Elspaß, Stephan; Nils Langer; Joachim Scharloth & Wim Vandenbussche (eds.) (2007): Germanic language histories 'from below' (1700 - 2000). Berlin: de Gruyter (Studia linguistica Germanica, 86).
  • Evans, Robert (2004): Language and state-building. The case of the Habsburg monarchy. Austrian History Yearbook 35 , 1–24.

    In this article (based on a lecture given at the Center for Austrian Studies in Minneapolis) the author asserts that 'language problems' were at the core of the inter-ethnic conflicts in the 19th-century Habsburg Empire which finally resulted in its breaking apart. According to him, until the reign of Maria Theresia in the 18th century, the linguistic diversity of the Habsburg monarchy had constituted no threat to political unity; on the contrary, the idea prevailed that 'God-given variety of tongues strengthens empires' whereas 'Unitas linguae obscurat dignitatem imperii'. The conflicts of the 19th century are ascribed by the author mainly to changes in language ideology. One aspect he names is the rise of monolingual attitudes with the mother tongue in an exclusive role. This 'infatuation' with the mother tongue is inspired by Romanticism and results in the pursuit of a separate linguistic culture (with own literature, lexicography, media etc.) which in turn laid the basis for the claim of a separate nation and consequently for a separate nation-state. Moreover, Romanticism coincided with the rise of historical comparative linguistics which identified the Indoeuropean language family: according to the author, this also contributed to a strengthening of the feeling of 'separateness' of the languages of the Habsburg Empire which pertained to different language families.

  • Fandrych, Christian & Reinier Salverda (eds.) (2007): Standard, Variation und Sprachwandel in germanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Narr (Studien zur deutschen Sprache, 41).

    The different contributions to this volume provide evidence for a growing linguistic variation and diversity in the actual linguistic behaviour throughout the Germanic language area. Examples are a paper by Stephan Elspass focussing on variation and change in Colloquial Standard German (Deutsche Alltagssprache) and a paper by Roland Willemyns on destandardization in de Dutch language area. Another paper focusses on language contact in migrant contexts in Germany (Keim/Knöbl). Evidence of variation in language practice is contrasted with the prevalence of a standardization ideology which has been a dominant ideology for centuries. This standardization ideology implies that one language (which shows as little variation as possible) is intrinsically better than other languages/varieties and that it is ideally linked to one territory (the one-nation-one-language-ideology) (cf. the contributions of Vandenbussche, Durrell and Androutsopoulos).

  • Frijhoff, Willem Th M. (2010): Meertaligheid in de Gouden Eeuw. Een verkenning. Amsterdam: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen.
  • Glück, Helmut (2002): Deutsch als Fremdsprache in Europa vom Mittelalter bis zur Barockzeit. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    This book is a (very successful) attempt to give a comprehensive overview of the learning and teaching of German in the Middle Ages and in Early Modern Times. This account of the history of 'German as a foreign language' is embedded into a very broad European cultural and social context; therefore the book also constitutes a useful overview of general European trends and developments in language learning/teaching in this period.
    Additionally, by sketching different contexts of language learning (for trade, travelling, in cases of inter-dynastical marriages, in academic mobility, in cases of migration etc.), the author provides insight into language practices and language ideologies which prevailed at the time. He provides evidence that languages were not yet viewed as clearly distinct entities, linked to a specific territory. Rather, the European vernacular languages were regarded as forming a continuum which allowed for communication over a wide area. For example, the regions where today German, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages were spoken, were, regarding language learning, commonly regarded as one communicative area. Within this area foreign language instruction was not regarded as imperative as mutual intelligibility could be achieved without formal instruction. Communicative problems only arose when you crossed e.g. the Germanic / Romance language border.
    Another interesting aspect of this book for the study of multilingualism from a historical perspective are the numerous references to (examples of) individual multilingualism across Europe and across social and occupational groups.

    1. Introduction 2. Existing research 3. What is 'German as a foreign language'? 4. Early history and oldest attestations of language contact 5. Why German? Social domains of learning German 6. 'German as a foreign language' in other language areas (France, Italy, the Baltic countries, Russia, the Nordic countries, the Low Countries, the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, Bohemia, Poland) 7. Textbooks, glossaries, dictionaries and grammars 8. Concluding remarks

  • Greenberg, Robert D. (2008): Language and identity in the Balkans. Serbo-Croatian and its disintegration. 1st publ. in paperback. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    The monograph outlines the main linguistic developments preceding and following the disintegration of Yugoslavia. The account is embedded into a broader historical and international perspective and includes recent developments (up to 2008). It focuses on the regions where formerly (varieties of) Serbo-Croatian was/were spoken and sketches the emergence of 4 standard languages (or: standard languages in the making): Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian and Montenegrin.
    The book is rooted in the research field(s) of language and identity, language and ethnicity and language and nationalism. Accordingly, it demonstrates how linguistic differences were instrumentalized to forge ethnic, cultural and political alliances. The author notes that the statement 'The accent you display lands you a job or brands you a traitor' might be true for many societies but it constitutes an especially harsh and even explosive reality in the successor states of the former Yugoslavia.
    Throughout the book, the author shows how languages were used to legitimize ethnic, territorial and national unity: e.g., the first attempts to create a Bosnian standard were made during the Bosnian war (1992-95); also, with the independence of Montenegro in 2006, started the debates on the establishment of a Montenegrin standard language, as distinct from Serbian.
    Finally, what becomes quite clear from the book is that the strong identity function that language has been assigned, has had a strong (negative) impact on communication in the region. Whereas up until Yugoslav times, receptive multilingualism was rather common, intercomprehensibility is now strongly contested and actively counteracted. Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian and Montenegrin are being made dissimilar in order to serve purposes of nation-state building.

    1. Introduction 2. Serbo-Croatian: United or not we fall 3. Serbian: Isn't my language your language? 4. Montenegrin: A mountain out of a mole hill? 5. Croatian: We are separate but equal twins 6. Bosnian: A three-humped camel? 7. Conclusion 8. Postscript: Developments since 2004

  • Haarmann, Harald (1995): Europeanness, European identity and the role of language. Giving profile to an anthropological infrastructure. In: Ulrich Ammon; Klaus Mattheier & Peter Nelde (eds.), Europäische Identität und Sprachenvielfalt / European Identity and Language Diversity / L'identité européenne et la diversité linguistique. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1–55 (Sociolinguistica, 9).
  • Haarmann, Harald (1999): History. In: Joshua A. Fishman (ed.), Handbook of language and ethnic identity. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 60–76.

    The author explores the relationship between identity, ethnicity and language from a historical perspective. He argues that, ever since the appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens, ethnicity has been the most basic dimension of identity. Also, from very early on, there has been an awareness among people of language as a marker of ethnic identity. One illustration for this is the fact that designations for languages and for the speakers of that language are commonly related. However, language is no exclusive marker of ethnicity: religion, for example, has a long tradition as a marker of ethnicity (e.g. for Jewish ethnicity but also, historically, for ethnic groups in the Ottoman Empire).
    Yet there have been periods in European history when language was assigned a crucial role as marker of ethnicity: the author refers for example to the Middle Ages when various vernacular languages were put into written form; according to him, it is since then that there is the specific link between ethnicity and a written (standard) language. The author also emphasizes the importance of the Enlightenment era when the idea of language-related ethnicity was integrated into political thought and, consequently was used as a tool of nationalistic competitiveness.

  • Hentschel, Gerd (ed.) (1997): Über Muttersprachen und Vaterländer. Zur Entwicklung von Standardsprachen und Nationen in Europa. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.
  • Hering, Gunnar (1987): Die Auseinandersetzungen über die neugriechische Schriftsprache. In: Christian Hannick (ed.), Sprachen und Nationen im Balkanraum. Die historischen Bedingungen der Entstehung der heutigen Nationalsprachen. Köln: Böhlau, 125–194 (Slavistische Forschungen, 56).
  • Horan, Geraldine; Nils Langer & Sheila Watts (eds.) (2009): Landmarks in the history of the German language. New York: Peter Lang (British and Irish studies in German language and literature).
  • Horner, Kristine (2005): Reimagining the Nation: Discourses of Language Purism in Luxembourg. In: Nils Langer & Winifred V. Davies (eds.), Linguistic purism in the Germanic languages. Berlin: de Gruyter, 166–185.

    This contribution addresses recent attempts to foster the role of Luxembourgish as a written medium against the background of an increasingly diverse Luxembourgish society: as a consequence of the rise of the banking industry, the arrival of EU institutions and increasing immigration in general, today 38% of the residents of Luxembourg do not have the Luxembourgish nationality which entails that Luxembourgish has been losing ground as everyday language over the past two decades.
    The author contrasts different ways in which Luxembourgish is being instrumentalized as a symbol of national identity. One way is to pledge for the preservation of 'pure' Luxemburgish and to link the language to ethnicity and territory. Another way is to promote Luxembourgish as a national language which should be easy to learn for all residents of the state, including the new ones (the author calls this a strive for homogenisation under the pretext of integration). Furthermore, there is also an opposition to attempts at elaborating a written standard: the author gives the example of university students who see it as the great advantage of writing Luxembourgish that one is not bound by strict rules (p. 172).

  • Horst, Joop van der (2008): Het einde van de standaardtaal. een wisseling van Europese taalcultuur. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff.

    In this book, the author asserts that the average European is socialized in a language culture which is characterized by a strict adherence to language norm and which views languages as discrete entities. He claims that this view on language has its roots in the culture of Early Modern Europe. He suggests that, during the past decades, this view has been subject to change. This change is, according to him, partly responsible for the perceived 'language crisis' in many European countries (the complaints about language decay etc.). He presents the development of this view on language as a common European phenomenon embedded in a common European political, cultural and societal process. His account is based on findings from studies in the fields of linguistics and cultural and social history.

    0 Introduction 1 Renaissance 2 Renaissance 3 Visible language 4 Language becomes quantifiable 5 The beginning of the end 6 Audible language 7 Language again becomes unquantifiable 8 Renaissance and standard language 4

  • Hroch, Miroslav (1999): The Slavic World. In: Joshua A. Fishman (ed.), Handbook of language and ethnic identity. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 319–333.

    In his contribution to the Handbook of language and ethnic identity the author retraces the development of 11 Slavic languages of which all but one (Sorbian) serve today as national languages: Czech, Slovac, Sorbian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Polish, Ukrainian and Russian. He focuses on the position of these languages within the big multi-ethnic European empires: the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the Habsburg Empire (and also the Venetian Empire). He describes how ethnic identies (Serbian, Ukrainian etc.) developed in the area and tries to establish at which point language became a crucial marker of identity in the different regions.
    Three aspects of his synthesis of the emergence of the Slavic standard languages are of special interest: (1) it is important to stress that several / most of these languages were spoken in more than one of the above named Empires (e.g. Ukrainian in the Russian Empire and the Habsburg Empire); there were considerable differences between these Empires as to their language policy (which in turn had an impact on the development of the regional Slavic varieties into standard languages); (2) related to the first aspect is the fact that in some cases a linguistic identity first developed in peripheral parts of the language area because the authorities there were more favorable towards regional languages (as for Serbia, in today's Vojvodina, then part of the Habsburg Empire; as for Ukrainian, in Galicia, which was also part of the Habsburg Empire); (3) especially in the Balkan region, religion mostly preceded language as a marker of ethnic/national identity; a division along linguistic lines only gained ground in the 19th century.

  • Hüllen, Werner (2000): Alle Sprachen nebeneinander. Die Anfänge des Fremdsprachenunterrichts in Europa (1450-1700). Zagreber Germanistische Beiträge 9 , 177–192.

    In this article, the author highlights one aspect of foreign language learning in Early Modern Europe (1450-1700), viz., the production and distribution of two types of teaching material across Europe. One is based on a book usually called Introito e porta which was first published in Venice in 1477 and was intended as a means to acquire German and Italian respectively. The other type can be traced back to the Colloquia et dictionariolum whereof the first edition appeared in 1536 in Antwerp and included Dutch, Latin, German, French, Spanish and Italian. Both books were extensively reprinted all over Europe and new languages were added in course of time.
    The author views this teaching material as an indication for a common European tradition of foreign language learning up to the 18th century. In the 19th century, he asserts, the common European tradition gave way to national traditions of foreign language learning and teaching. As to the selection of specific languages to be included in the Introito e porta and Colloquia et dictionariolum respectively, the author points out two criteria: (1) there had to be a tradition of grammar and dictionary production for the language in question and (2) knowledge of the language had to be a prerequisite to participate in the economic and political life of the time.

  • Hüllen, Werner (2001): Characterization and evaluation of languages in the Renaissance and in the Early Modern Period. In: Martin Haspelmath; Ekkehard König & Wulf Oesterreicher (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals /Sprachtypologie und sprachliche Universalien /La typologie des langues et les universaux linguistiques. An International Handbook/Ein Internationales Handbuch/Manuel International, 234–249 (Handbücher zur Sprach-und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 20,1).
  • Hüllen, Werner (2005): Kleine Geschichte des Fremdsprachenlernens. Berlin: Schmidt. [URL: http://www.gbv.de/dms/hebis-darmstadt/toc/128220600.pdf].

    This book provides a very insightful overview of the main charcteristics of language learning and teaching in Europe from the times of the Roman Empire until the 1960s. The author aims at integrating various facts concerning teaching materials, teachers, language skills, motivation and didactics collected by linguists, historians and sociologists into a broader 'history of concepts' of language learning. He asserts that, until the end of early modern times, the history of language learning and teaching can be viewed as a common European history: the first language to be learned on a broad scale was Latin; the teaching of vernacular languages, mainly from the 16th century onwards, built on this tradition. In order to demonstrate the tradition of cooperation across Europe the author dedicates e.g. one chapter to the rise and spread of teaching material based on the 'Colloquia et dictionarolum' which contained model dialogues in various languages and was originally published by Berlaimont, a teacher from Antwerp, in the 16th century. In the course of time, about 100 adaptations of this 'Colloquia et dictionarolum' were published across Europe.
    According to the author, it was only from the late 18th century onwards that national traditions of language teaching started to prevail. Accordingly, he concentrates on language teaching in Germany when dealing with the developments in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    I. Systematic and historiographical assumptions II. Early foreign language teaching as a European tradition 1. Late classical and early medieval background 2. The Latin and the Non-Latin Middle Ages 3. Teaching of Latin during European Humanism 4. Foreign language learning in the 16th and 17th centuries 5. The so-called silent period III. Modern foreign language teaching as a national tradition in Germany 1. The innovative 19th century 2. Competing methods 3. The Prussian school reform of 1924 4. Foreign language teaching under national socialism 5. Foreign language teaching after the great catastrophe 6. Focus on the present

  • Janich, Nina & Albrecht Greule (eds.) (2002): Sprachkulturen in Europa. Ein internationales Handbuch. Tübingen: Narr.

    This handbook offers a concise description of the languages of Europe in their cultural and political context, from Albanian to the Volga Finnish languages. All in all, the handbook contains 56 articles (some languages are subsumed in one article, as e.g. Karelian, Vepsian etc. under the header 'Balto-Finnish').
    Topics treated in each article are language spread, codification, history of the language norm and the current role of standard languages and other varieties. Overall, the focus is on language cultivation and on the actors involved in language cultivation activities.

  • Joseph, John E. (1987): Eloquence and power. The rise of language standards and standard languages. London: Pinter.
  • Katičič, Radoslav (1997): Undoing a 'unified language': Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian. In: Michael Clyne (ed.), Undoing and redoing corpus planning. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 166–191 (Contributions to the sociology of language, 78).

    As one of the contributions to Clyne (1997), it is supposed to cover the process of undoing the corpus planning which was meant to create a unified Serbo-Croatian language. However, it mainly aims at demonstrating that there never has been and there never will be a Serbo-Croatian language. It asserts that Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian (and to a certain extent 'Montenegrian') have always been clearly separate languages, spoken by separate ethnic groups with their own cultural heritage and that it is only natural that they are finally being recognized as such. The author also makes a great effort to contrast the selection of a Croatian and of a Serbian standard language: he describes Croatian as having developed as a koiné of different local uniform written languages (which he presents as a positive development) whereas Serbian, according to him, developed from the urban variety of the capital Belgrade (which he assesses as negative). Another important concern of the author is the establishment of Croatian Studies at universities replacing Serbo-Croatian Studies which he regards as 'inadequate' and misleading for students.
    The contribution serves, however, as an interesting example for the discursive construction of Croatian national and linguistic unity in the 1990ies.

  • Langer, Nils & Winifred V. Davies (eds.) (2005): Linguistic purism in the Germanic languages. Berlin: de Gruyter.

    This volume presents a variety of case studies on the topic of linguistic purism from a range of language areas (mostly Germanic) and periods in history. In the introduction, the editors allude to the fact that purist reactions to language use can be found in all language contexts, also in those where languages are not standardized and speakers are illiterate. However, they stress the importance of purism as one aspect of the codification and elaboration of standard languages in the history of Europe (a topic e.g. dealt with in the contribution by Vandenbussche et al on standardization of Dutch in Flanders). Moreover, the volume contains four papers on the relationship between nationhood and purism (regarding German in Switzerland and Germany, Afrikaans and Luxembourg). In both topics, purism has a bearing on linguistic diversity and is related to a language ideology of unification.

  • Linn, Andrew Robert & Nicola McLelland (eds.) (2002): Standardization. Studies from the Germanic languages ; [Standard-Germanic conference held 4 - 7 January 2001 at the University of Sheffield]. Amsterdam: Benjamins (Amsterdam studies in the theory and history of linguistic scienceSeries 4, Current issues in linguistic theory, 235).
  • Loonen, P.L.M. (1990): For to learne to buye and sell: Learning English in the Low Dutch area between 1500 and 1800. A critical survey. Groningen: Universiteitsdrukkerij.

    This dissertation provides an overview of the teaching of English and of English textbooks used in the Low Countries in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The author stresses that, during this period, only Latin and French were typically taught to children in schools. Apart from that foreign language teaching was a matter of adult education and/or private tutoring. English was not the most common/popular foreign language in Europe at the time, however, in the Low Countries English was taught on a greater scale, mostly for commercial reasons. As a consequence, English textbooks used for this purpose were practice-oriented, containing model dialogues (e.g. on 'For to learne to buye and sell'). A very well-known and influential textbook which focussed on language learning for practical purposes was, according to the author, the 'Colloquia et dictionarum septem linguarum' by the Flemisch teacher Barlement. It was first published in 1576 for Dutch, German, English, French, Latin, Spanish and Italian and was, over the centuries, translated into and adapted for many other language combinations.

  • Lüdi, Georges (1989): Polyglossie und Schreibtraditionen: Das Beispiel der Handfeste von Fribourg / Freiburg i. Ue. von 1249 und ihrer Übersetzungen. In: Ursula Klenk & Gustav Ineichen (eds.), Variatio linguarum. Beiträge zu Sprachvergleich und Sprachentwicklung ; Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Gustav Ineichen. Stuttgart: Steiner, 171–182.

    This article is about writing traditions in the Swiss town of Freiburg in the 14th and 15th centuries. It describes the polyglossic situation of the town at the time: it is assumed that the population was bilingual in Franco-Provençal and Alemannic. The written language was mainly Latin; however, in the course of time, also some uniform written French as well as German were being used in different text types. Based on a thourough analysis of missives, minutes, account books and of German and French translations of a Latin Charter from 1249, the author makes the assertion that the degree to which the languages in question influence each other depends on the text type. He states that in a formal text type such as a Charter superregional writing traditions prevail: they contain only few regionalisms and there is little evidence that the French and the German text strongly mirror the Latin text on a lexical level. Text types with less prestige, in contrast, such as minutes or account books conform more with local communicative needs and contain a lot of 'switches' between languages/codes.

  • Lüdi, Georges (2001): Peter Ochs: Eine mehrsprachige europäische Biographie. In: Rita Franceschini (ed.), Biographie und Interkulturalität. Diskurs und Lebenspraxis. Beitr. eines Kolloquiums "Biographie und Interkulturalität in Diskurs und Lebenspraxis", gehalten am 28.-30. März 1996, in Augst bei Basel. Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 126–153.

    The topic of this article is the linguistic biography of the late 18th / early 19th century Swiss politician Peter Ochs. Ochs was born in France (Nantes) where he spent the first four years of his life before moving to Hamburg where he grew up in French Huguenot circles. At the age of 17 he moved to his father's hometown Basle. He studied in Basle and Leiden and made his career in Swiss politics, all the while maintaining a strong relationship with France and French culture.
    The focus of the article is on the interrelationship between Ochs' language skills and language use and his social/cultural identity. There is no evidence from Ochs' writings how he himself judged the role of his different languages (French, German and Basle dialect) in his life/career. In the funeral address which he had prepared in advance no mentionning is made of his multilingualism (the author suggests that maybe Ochs viewed it too 'normal' to be mentionned). However, there is evidence from his writings and his correspondence as to which languages Ochs used with whom and for which purpose. His writings were in both French and German whereas his letters were mainly in French. Interestingly, especially at a later stage in his life, there are a lot of 'mixed' letters with French as the matrix language and regular switches into German. These letters were mostly exchanged with Swiss German correspondents. The author views this mixed language use as an expression of a shared identity with his correspondents who were, like him, in favour of the ideas of French Enlightenment.

  • Lüdi, Georges (2005): Suisses, plurilingues et citoyens du monde: Euler, Haller, Ochs et Stapfer. In: Peter Schnyder (ed.), Visions de la Suisse. À la recherche d'une identité: projets et rejets. Strasbourg: Presses Univ. de Strasbourg, 59–76.
  • Lüdi, Georges (2007): Sprachverhalten, Sprachpolitik, Diskurs über Sprache: Staatlichkeit in Europa zwischen dem einsprachigen Nationalstaat und dem mehrsprachigen Vielvölkerstaat. In: Marek Nekula; Ingrid Fleischmann & Albrecht Greule (eds.), Franz Kafka im sprachnationalen Kontext seiner Zeit. Sprache und nationale Identität in öffentlichen Institutionen der böhmischen Länder. Köln: Böhlau, 13–30.

    In his contribution, the author explores the origins of monolingual and homoglossic ideologies in the history of Europe. According to him, the conviction that monolingualism is 'normal' and multilingualism is the deviation has developed as part of a discursive tradition. The roots of a 'discourse of monolingualism' go back to the Old Testament (cf. the myth of the Tower of Babel) and there is evidence for such a discourse from the Middle Ages and from the Renaissance. However, only with the French Revolution and with the ideas of Herder monolingual ideology gained momentum. It became intertwined with the concept of the nation state. Since then, territorial monolingualism (one nation, one language) has been at the core of European (language) politics. It has even been transferred to regions beyond Europe (e.g. to former colonies).
    The author argues that this ideology stands in harsh contrast to the actual linguistic situation of Europe which is characterized by globalisation and geographical mobility.

  • Lüdi, Georges; Georges Darms & Reginald Amonoo (eds.) (1994): Sprachstandardisierung. 12. Kolloquium der Schweizerischen Akademie der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften 1991. Basel: Universitätsverlag.
  • Mackridge, Peter (2009): Language and national identity in Greece, 1766--1976. New York: Oxford University Press.

    This monograph provides an account of the role of language in the development of Greek national identity. First of all, in the second chapter of the book, the author gives a detailed picture of the political, social and linguistic preconditions for the Greek language controversy which left its mark on public life in Greece from the late 18th century onwards. The author reveals the extent to which the Balkans (including present-day Greece) constituted an ethnically, religiously and linguistically heterogenous region. The modern Greek nation basically developed out of the community of Orthodox Christians who lived scattered around the Ottoman Empire (today's Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, parts of Romania and Moldova) and beyond (The Russian and the Habsburg Empire as well as Italian cities). They were bound together mainly by their common faith and partly by their belief in a common heritage which can be traced back to antiquity. They were also linked by their knowledge and use of (varieties of) the Greek language. One of the core questions of the Greek language controversy over the centuries was how the link with Ancient Greece should be reflected in language. The most prominent opposing views were held by the the 'archaists' on the one hand and the vernacularists on the other: the former aimed at preserving the use of ancient forms of Greek in order to demonstrate that the modern Greeks are descendants of the prestigious ancient Greeks; the latter used the fact that the popular language and culture (the Greek of the common people) showed clear continuity over the centuries, as an indication for the link between ancient and modern Greeks and pleaded on these grounds for a modern Greek language based on the spoken varieties of the time.
    In his account, the author focuses on three periods in Greek history when the language controversy was especially vivid; these periods are all characterized by social transition: the period from the 1760s to 1821 (a time when Orthodox Christians gained more social and political participation in the Ottoman Empire), the period from the 1880s until the 1920s (which was marked by the consolidation of the Greek bourgeoisie, the start of industrialization and the rise of a national expansionist movement) and the period from 1974 to the early 1990s (during which Greece returned from dictatorship to democracy). The author addresses the third period in the 'Epilogue'; in this epilogue he also addresses 'new' language controversies emerging in the Greek context. He states that in present-day Greece it is no longer the opposition between archaists and vernacularists which sets the tone. Since 'popular Greek', i.e. demotic Greek has been imposed by law in the 1980s, there is a debate between those who respect this new norm and those who argue for more freedom from the norm where there is room for the mixing of 'modern' and 'ancient' forms.
    Finally, the author also briefly addresses the emergence of a general (perceived) language crisis: Greeks are increasingly lamenting the decay of their language, moaning about the deplorable language use among the young generation and the threat posed by English as an international language.

    1. Theoretical background 2. The preconditions for the Greek language controversy 3. The early stages of the controversy, 1766-1804 4. Adamantios Korais as language reformer 5. Alternative proposals to Korais' project, 1804-1830 6. Language in the two Greek states, 1830-1897 7. The beginning of the demoticist campaign, 1880-1897 8. Educational demoticism and political reform, 1897-1922 9. The political polarization of the language question, 1922-1976 10. Epilogue

  • Nadeau, Jean-Benoît & Julie Barlow (2006): Plus ça change. The story of French - from Charlemagne to the Cirque du Soleil. London: Robson Books.
  • Nesse, Agnete (2003): Written and spoken languages in Bergen in the Hansa era. In: Kurt Braunmüller & Gisella Ferraresi (eds.), Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 61–84 (Hamburg studies on multilingualism / Hamburg studies on multilingualism, 2).

    During the Hansa era (from ca. 1350 onwards), the following languages were used in the Norwegian commercial town of Bergen: Norwegian was spoken by the local population and Low German was used by the Hansa merchants. From the 16th and 17th centuries onwards, Danish and High German were increasingly used as written languages. In this contribution (which is a summary of her dissertation), the author is specifically interested in the specific features of the Bergen variety of Norwegian which differs significantly from all other Norwegian varieties. She argues that speakers of Norwegian and of Low German formed separate communities in Bergen (there is e.g. little evidence of intermarriage between the two groups until the late 17th/early 18th centuries). However, they had to communicate on occasions and therefore acquired passive knowledge of the respective other language. Moreover, there is evidence of lexical borrowing and of grammatical 'adaption' of one language towards the other. The author interprets this as attempts to faciltate intergroup communication. The linguistic sitiuation as a whole is characterized by the author as 'passive bilingualism'. According to her, the specific grammatical features of the Bergen variety of Norwegian can be related to this communicative situation during the Hansa era (ca. 1350 - 1750).

  • Neweklowsky, Gerhard (2004): Die südslawische Region / The South-Slavic Area. In: Ulrich Ammon, et al. (eds.), Sociolinguistics. An international handbook of the science of language and society;ein internationales Handbuch zur Wissenschaft von Sprache und Gesellschaft. 2nd completey revised and extended ed. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1824–1836 (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 3 Ed. 2).

    This contribution (from the international handbook of the science of language and society) constitutes a very readable first (German) introduction to the history and the current status of the standard languages of the South-Slavic Area. It devotes one section to Slovenian, one to the topic of Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian (including the role of Serbo-Croatian in former Yugoslavia), one to Bulgarian and one to the very 'young' standard language of Macedonian (and its distinction from Bulgarian). The article provides a good overall picture of how the emergence of these standard languages is interrelated and how it has been determined, over the past centuries, by political conflicts in the region. It also gives an account of the language policy in former Yugoslavia.

  • Press, Ian (2007): A history of the Russian language and its speakers. München: LINCOM Europa (Studies in Slavic Linguistics, 26).
  • Ptashnyk, Stefaniya (2007): Societal multilingualism and language conflicts in Galicia in the 19th century. In: Stephan Elspaß, et al. (eds.), Germanic language histories 'from below' (1700 - 2000). Berlin: de Gruyter, 437–448 (Studia linguistica Germanica, 86).

    In this paper, the author addresses the linguistic situation in the Galician part of the Habsburg monarchy in the 19th century which she characterizes as polyglossic. This basically implies that the languages of the different ethnic groups (mainly German, Polish and Ukrainian/Ruthenian but also Yiddish, Armenian and Hebrew) were used in different domains and had different social status. Differences in status ascriptions were related to the amount of standardisation each language had undergone: in this respect German was clearly superior to Polish which in turn was 'more standardized' than Ukrainian. According to the author, for an ethnic group to acquire equal status vis à vis another group, a standardized and elaborated written language was regarded as a prerequisite. However, the relationship between the ethnic groups and their languages was not a stable one. The author analyses a corpus of written texts from four Galician newspapers (1 German, 1 Ukrainian and 2 Polish) from the period between March and June 1897. This period comprises two important political events: parlamentary elections in Galicia and a language decree issued for Bohemia and Moravia. Her analysis shows (1) that the status that the ethnic groups ascribe to themselves differs considerably from the status given to them by the respective other groups and (2) that all ethnic groups constantly try to negotiate their status - either with the aim of maintaining the status quo (e.g. for the German nationality to maintain their hegemonic position) or with the aim of improving their social status by demanding more rights for their language.

  • Rambø, Gro-Renée (2008): Historiske og sosiale betingelser for språkkontakt mellom nedertysk og skandinavisk i seinmiddelalderen. et bidrag til historisk språksosiologi. Betreut von Ernst Håkon Jahr. Universitetet i Agder, Institutt for nordisk og mediefag.

    This dissertation is about language contact between Low German and Scandinavian languages in the Middle Ages. However, the author does not focus on the results of language contact (e.g. on Low German loanwords) but on the conditions for language contact at the time. She uses insights from history, medieval archeology, sociology, social anthropology and interactional psychology to explore among others the political conditions, economic structures, cultural contacts, settlement structures and demographic conditions for language contact in centers of Hanseatic trade in Norway (Bergen and Oslo/Tønsberg), Denmark (Copenhagen and Ribe), Sweden (Kalmar and Stockholm) and on the island of Gotland. The dissertation is to a great extent based on results from existing studies addressing language use in these trading centers and provides a much needed synthesis of the sociolinguistic conditions for language contact in Scandinavia. It especially stresses that the preconditions for the concrete language contact situations were different in each city: the Hanseatic merchants were integrated in the societies of these cities in different ways and as a consequence, the possibilities for contact with the Scandinavian population and the nature of this contact differed considerably. The author also emphasizes the importance of approaching the language situation in Scandinavia in the Late Middle Ages as characterized by individual and societal multilingualism and frequent language mixing.

    Part 1: Background and research questions 1. General introduction 2. Research on language contact between Low German and Scandinavian Part 2: Theory and methods 3. Theory and methods Part 3: Language contact between Low German and Scandinavian in the Late Middle Ages 4. The Hansa and Scandinavia 5. Gotland 6. Denmark 7. Sweden 8. Norway Part 4: Summary and conclusion 9. Language contact in Scandinavia in the Late Middle Ages

  • Riedel, Sabine (2005): Die Erfindung der Balkanvölker. Identitätspolitik zwischen Konflikt und Integration. Wiesbaden: VS Verl. für Sozialwiss. [URL: http://www.gbv.de/dms/bs/toc/477080804.pdf].

    1. Introduction 2. Research approach and definitions 3. Current identity conflicts in South East Europe 3.1 Bosnia-Herzegovina: the Serbian-Croatian-Muslim/Bosnian identity conflict 3.2 Serbia-Montenegro: the Albanian-Serbian identity conflict in Kosovo 3.3 Albania: the Gegian-Toscian identity conflict 3.4 Republic of Macedonia (FYROM): the Albanian-Macedonian identity conflict 3.5 The Bulgarian-Macedonian identity conflict 3.6 The Greek-Macedonian identity conflict 3.7 Greece/West Thrace: the Turkish-Greek-Pomak identity conflict 3.8 Bulgaria: the Turkish-Bulgarian-Pomak identity conflict 3.9 Republic of Moldova: the Romanian-Moldovan-Russian identity conflict 3.10 Romania/Transylvania: the Hungarian-Romanian identity conflict 4. Ethnicity as a social construct 5. Identity politics between particularism and universalism 5. Theses

  • Rindler Schjerve, Rosita & Eva Vetter (2007): Linguistic diversity in Habsburg Austria as a model for modern European language policy. In: Jan Derk ten Thije & Ludger Zeevaert (eds.), Receptive multilingualism. Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 49–72 (Hamburg studies on multilingualism, 6).
  • Roobol, W. H. (2004): De Zwitsers en hun talen in staatkundig perspectief. In: Annemarie et al. van Heerikhuizen (ed.), Het Babylonische Europa. Opstellen over veeltaligheid. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press/Salomé, 135–149.

    The author (a historian) gives an introduction to the linguistic history of Switzerland against the background of its development as a state. The following characteristics of the country's language history emerge from this article. (1) Up to the 18th century, the identity and unity of the different cantons of the confederation ('Eidgenossenschaft') was far more important than religious or linguistic unity. (2) Until the French Revolution, German was the generally seen as the language with the highest status. (3) In the aftermath of the French Revolution and the subsequent French occupation, democratization led, in some bilingual cantons (e.g. Fribourg/Freiburg), to the official recognition of French. (3) In the 19th century, when there developped nation-states all over Europe which stressed the link between language and nation, Switzerland strengthened its self-image as a multilingual state (multilingualism as a national symbol). In his conclusion, the author touches only briefly on the question of cooperation/contact between the language communities. He states that in the past, the different language communities rather coexisted than cooperated. The motto at the beginning of the article matches this statement: 'La Suisse est un pays ou on s' entend bien parce qu'on ne s'y comprend pas. - Georges-André Chevallaz'.

  • Rutten, Gijsbert Johan (2006): De Archimedische punten van de taalbeschouwing. David van Hoogstraten (1658-1724) en de vroegmoderne taalcultuur. Amsterdam, Münster: Stichting Neerlandistiek VU; Nodus Publikationen. (Uitgaven Stichting Neerlandistiek, 52).

    In his dissertation, the author identifies key aspects of the language culture of the 17th century by analyzing the works of the Dutch scholar David van Hoogstraten (1658-1724). One main conclusion is that the 'language culture' of this period is characterized by the search for an ideal language. This ideal language can be a real language form which existed in the past or it can be a hypothetical ideal language. Through his analysis of manifestations of language ideology in the works of a member of the Dutch cultural elite of the time, Rutten sheds light on the context within which the selection and elaboration of standard languages in Early Modern Europe took place.

  • Siguán, Miquel (2001): Die Sprachen im vereinten Europa. Tübingen: Stauffenburg-Verl.
  • Trabant, Jürgen (2006): Europäisches Sprachdenken. Von Plato bis Wittgenstein. München: Beck.
  • Trotter, David (2003): Oceano Vox: You never know where a ship comes from: On multilingualism and language-mixing in medieval Britain. In: Kurt Braunmüller & Gisella Ferraresi (eds.), Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 15–33 (Hamburg studies on multilingualism / Hamburg studies on multilingualism, 2).

    The author presents evidence of a multilingual shipping terminology in medieval Britain. There are, e.g. , documents on sea trade and shipbuilding in Latin containing shipping terms in Anglo-Norman. On the other hand, there are documents in Anglo-Norman with Middle English sea terms. These phenomena are generally accounted for in terms of lexical borrowing and/or code-switching. However, the author argues that to make a clear distinction between different codes (Anglo-Norman vs. Middle English) constitutes an anachronistic perspective. According to him, Anglo-Norman and Middle English were not perceived as clearly separated entities by speakers of the time. He asserts that language mixing, at least at the lexical level, was very common in medieval times.

  • van Ginderachter, M. (2008): How useful is the concept of ethnolinguistic nationalism? On imagined communities, the ethnic-civic dichotomy and banal nationalism. In: Petra Broomans, et al. (eds.), The beloved mothertongue. Ethnolinguistic nationalism in small nations: inventories and reflections. Leuven etc.: Peeters, 1–13 (Groningen Studies in Cultural Change, 33).

    This contribution gives a very readable introduction to different concepts of nationalism in present-day research and also from a historical perspective. It also touches briefly on the role language in general and standard languages in particular played in the emergence of nation-states: it refers to Andersons Imagined Communities which names the rise of state languages as an important factor in the emergence of nations.

  • Vandenbussche, Wim (2007): Shared Standardization Factors in the History of Sixteen Germanic Languages. In: Christian Fandrych & Reinier Salverda (eds.), Standard, Variation und Sprachwandel in germanischen Sprachen. Tübingen: Narr, 25–36 (Studien zur deutschen Sprache, 41).

    The focus of this paper is on typical actors in the standardization process of different Germanic languages. The author addresses the role of printers, of chancery scribes in political power centres, of merchants from important economic centres, of literary authors and authors of legal writing, of teachers, of official language planning bodies, of academics and of the media. He briefly touches upon their roles in different stages in the selectionprocess of standard languages across the Germanic language area. By doing so, he opens up new avenues for further research into the context of standardization.
    In the second part of his paper, the author deals with the ideological exploitation of language standardization. This refers on the one hand to the strategy of associating the standard variety with social superiority and, on the other hand, it implies the exploitation of standard language as a catalyst for nation-building.

  • Vandenbussche, Wim & Ana Deumert (eds.) (2003): Germanic Standardizations: past to present.. Amsterdam, New York: John Benjamins.

    The aim of this thematic volume is to provide an introductive overview of the standardization processes of the Germanic languages. The volume includes not only the 'fully-fledged' Germanic standard languages (German, Dutch, English, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Icelandic and Afrikaans) but also languages with ongoing standardization process (Frisian, Scots, Luxemburgish, Faroese and Yiddish), Germanic pidgins and creoles where the standardization process is in an initial phase and a case of 'failed' standardization (Middle Low German). Haugen's model of four dimensions along which standard languages develop (norm selection, norm codification, norm implementation and norm elaboration) is used as a frame of reference for the different case studies. In addition, attention is paid to recent developments with regard to the respective standard language (e.g. aspects of destandardization).

  • Vogl, Ulrike (2010): Der historische Kontext von 'Standardsprachigkeit': zu Unterschieden und Gemeinsamkeiten innerhalb Europas. In: Cornelia Hülmbauer; Eva Vetter & Heike Böhringer (eds.), Mehrsprachigkeit aus der Perspektive zweier EU-Projekte. DYLAN meets LINEE. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang (Sprache im Kontext, 34).
  • Voss, Christian (2009): The Macedonian Standard Language: Tito-Yugoslav Experiment or Symbol of 'Great Macedonian' Ethnic Inclusion? In: Clare Mar-Molinero & Patrick Stevenson (eds.), Language ideologies, policies and practices. Language and the future of Europe. Basingstoke u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan, 118–132 (Language and globalization).

    This contribution addresses issues of language and identity in the changing political and ideological context of the greater Macedonian region: 'Vardar-Macedonia' (corresponding roughly to ex-Yugoslav Macedonia), 'Aegean Macedonia' (Greek Macedonia) and Bulgarian 'Pirin Macedonia'. The author characterizes 'Macedonianness' historically (during the Ottoman period up to 1912/13) as a typical borderland identity with the local population trying to keep out of the Bulgarian-Greek polarization. He then gives an account of Tito's language policy with regard to Macedonian: in 1944, Macedonian was declared an official language of the Yugoslav republic of Macedonia; corpus planning aimed at excluding all elements from varieties of Macedonian spoken outside of Yugoslav Macedonia. This implied that Macedonian minorities in Greece and Bulgaria where cut off from this standardization process. Concerning speakers of Macedonian varieties in Greece and Bulgaria, the author reports that they were made to believe that they were speaking dialects of Greek and Bulgarian respectively. As a consequence, the position of Macedonian there is very weak.
    In his conclusion, the author identifies as most crucial feature of the Macedonian region that ethnic and linguistic identity do not always coincide but that the society of the region is rather characterized by transitional identities. This should be kept in mind when assessing the situation of ethnic and or linguistic minorities in the region which are often not helped by European minority policies which tend to impose their concept of 'national minorities' in the region.

  • Wesch, Andreas (2003): Externe Sprachgeschichte des Portugiesischen / Histoire externe du portugais. In: Gerhard Ernst, et al. (eds.), Romanische Sprachgeschichte / Histoire linguistique de la Romania. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Geschichte der romanischen Sprachen / Manuel international d'histoire linguistique de la Romania. Berlin: de Gruyter, 880–894 (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, 23/1).

    This contribution (from the handbook for Romance language history) provides facts about the external history of the Portuguese language. It goes into great detail concerning the contact between different peoples and languages on the Iberian peninsula until the end of the Middle Ages. As to the selection of a Portuguese standard language it points to the model function of the Lisbon variety (Lisbon being the political and cultural centre from the late Middle Ages onwards). However, it also mentions the city of Coimbra as an important centre of learning and translating during the 14th and 15th centuries. The paper contains an interesting reference to the existence of widespread Portuguese-Spanish/Castilian bilingualism among Portuguese elites from the middle of the 15th until the end of the 17th centuries. It also addresses the role of the English language in Portugal: according to the author, there is less opposition to English on the part of the speakers than e.g. in Spain and also less effort to ban English influences by language officials than e.g. in France.

  • Wever, Bruno de (2008): From Language to Nationality. The Case of Dutch-speaking Belgians in the Nineteenth Century. In: Petra Broomans, et al. (eds.), The beloved mothertongue. Ethnolinguistic nationalism in small nations: inventories and reflections. Leuven etc.: Peeters, 49–61 (Groningen Studies in Cultural Change, 33).

    This article gives an account of the rise of the Flemish movement in Belgium from the 1830s onwards. Its emphasis is on the relation between a social and a language movement in the Flemish case. The author states that the fact that the Flemish movement only appealed to the 'masses' at a very late stage (after the Equality Law was passed at the turn of the century) can partly explain why it was only after the First World War that the Flemish began to strive for a monolingual Dutch speaking territory in Flanders.

  • Witte, Els & Harry van Velthoven (1999): Language and politics. The Belgian case study in a historical perspective. Brussels: VUB University Press.

    The authors give a detailed account of the language history of Belgium, from its foundation until the 1990s. They relate the complex and constantly changing language situation to socio-political and cultural changes that affected Belgium in the 19th and 20th centuries. They start with the political background of the founding of Belgium, discuss the rise of the Flemish movement, give an exhaustive account of the emancipation of the Dutch language and finish with language issues in an increasingly federalized Belgium. The authors' come from the fields of history and political science. The book is available in three languages: Dutch, French and English.

    1. The frame of reference 2. Language legislation under a tributary elite 3. The breakthrough of mass democracy and language legislation 4. Language laws in an emancipating Flanders 5. Federalism and language policies


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